Significant accounting policies
The Consolidated financial statements in this section have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as endorsed by the European Union (EU) and with the statutory provisions of Part 9, Book 2 of the Dutch Civil Code. All standards and interpretations issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the IFRS Interpretations Committee effective year-end 2013 have been endorsed by the EU, except that the EU did not adopt some of the paragraphs of IAS 39 applicable to certain hedge transactions. Philips has no hedge transactions to which these paragraphs are applicable. Consequently, the accounting policies applied by Philips also comply fully with IFRS as issued by the IASB. These accounting policies have been applied by group entities.
The Consolidated financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention, unless otherwise indicated.
The Consolidated financial statements are presented in euros, which is the Company’s presentation currency.
On February 25, 2014, the Board of Management authorized the Consolidated financial statements for issue. The Consolidated financial statements as presented in this report are subject to the adoption by the Annual General Meeting of Shareholders, to be held on May 1, 2014.
Use of estimates
The preparation of the Consolidated financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses. These estimates inherently contain certain degree of uncertainty. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
These estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the Consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. We evaluate these estimates and judgments on an ongoing basis and base our estimates on historical experience, current and expected future outcomes, third-party evaluations and various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities as well as identifying and assessing the accounting treatment with respect to commitments and contingencies. We revise material estimates if changes occur in the circumstances or there is new information or experience on which an estimate was or can be based.
Estimates significantly impact goodwill and other intangibles acquired, tax on activities disposed, impairments, financial instruments, the accounting for an arrangement containing a lease, revenue recognition (multiple element arrangements), assets and liabilities from employee benefit plans, other provisions and tax and other contingencies, classification of assets and liabilities held for sale and the presentation of items of profit and loss and cash flows as continued or discontinued. The fair values of acquired identifiable intangible assets are based on an assessment of future cash flows. Impairment analyses of goodwill, intangible assets not yet ready for use and indefinite-lived intangible assets are performed annually and whenever a triggering event has occurred to determine whether the carrying value exceeds the recoverable amount. These analyses generally are based on estimates of future cash flows.
The fair value of financial instruments that are not traded in an active market is determined by using valuation techniques. The Company uses its judgment to select from a variety of common valuation methods including the discounted cash flow method and option valuation models and to make assumptions that are mainly based on market conditions existing at each balance sheet date.
Actuarial assumptions are established to anticipate future events and are used in calculating post-employment benefit expenses and liabilities. These factors include assumptions with respect to interest rates, rates of increase in health care costs, rates of future compensation increases, turnover rates and life expectancy.
The presentation of certain prior-year information has been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation, including the 2011 presentation of adjustments to the results of prior year’s divestments reported as discontinued operations as a consequence of the resolution of uncertainties that arose from the relevant sales agreements. As a result, an income tax benefit of EUR 30 million was retrospectively reclassified in the 2011 comparative figures from income tax expense of continuing operations to income tax from discontinued operations.
Basis of consolidation
The Consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Koninklijke Philips N.V. (‘the Company’) and all subsidiaries that the Company controls, i.e. when it is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee. The existence and effect of potential voting rights are considered when assessing whether the Company controls another entity. Subsidiaries are fully consolidated from the date that control commences until the date that control ceases. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in the Consolidated financial statements. Unrealized losses are eliminated in the same way as unrealized gains, but only to the extent that there is no evidence of impairment.
Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method. Under the acquisition method, the identifiable assets acquired, liabilities assumed and any non-controlling interest in the acquiree are recognized at the acquisition date, which is the date on which control is transferred to the Company.
For acquisitions on or after January 1, 2010, the Company measures goodwill at the acquisition date as:
- the fair value of the consideration transferred; plus
- the recognized amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree; plus
- if the business combination is achieved in stages, the fair value of the existing equity interest in the acquiree; less
- the net recognized amount (generally fair value) of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed.
When the excess is negative, a bargain purchase gain is recognized immediately in profit or loss (hereafter referred to as the Statement of income).
The consideration transferred does not include amounts related to the settlement of pre-existing relationships. Such amounts are generally recognized in the Statement of income.
Costs related to the acquisition, other than those associated with the issue of debt or equity securities, that the Company incurs in connection with a business combination are expensed as incurred.
Any contingent consideration payable is recognized at fair value at the acquisition date and initially is presented as Long-term provisions. When timing and amount of the consideration become more certain, it is reclassified to Accrued liabilities. If the contingent consideration is classified as equity, it is not remeasured and settlement is accounted for within equity. Otherwise, subsequent changes to the fair value of the contingent consideration are recognized in the Statement of income.
Acquisitions between January 1, 2004 and January 1, 2010
For acquisitions between January 1, 2004 and January 1, 2010, goodwill represents the excess of the cost of the acquisition over the Company’s interest in the recognized amount (generally fair value) of the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of the acquiree. Transaction costs, other than those associated with the issue of debt or equity securities, that the Company incurred in connection with business combinations were capitalized as part of the cost of the acquisition.
Acquisitions of and adjustments to non-controlling interests
Acquisitions of non-controlling interests are accounted for as transactions with owners in their capacity as owners and therefore no goodwill is recognized. Adjustments to non-controlling interests arising from transactions that do not involve the loss of control are based on a proportionate amount of the net assets of the subsidiary.
For changes to non-controlling interest without the loss of control, the difference between such change and any consideration paid or received is recognized directly in equity.
Loss of control
Upon the loss of control, the Company derecognizes the assets and liabilities of the subsidiary, any non-controlling interests and the other components of equity related to the subsidiary. Any surplus or deficit arising on the loss of control is recognized in the Statement of income. If the Company retains any interest in the previous subsidiary, then such interest is measured at fair value at the date the control is lost. Subsequently it is accounted for as an equity-accounted investee or as an available-for-sale financial asset depending on the level of influence retained.
Investments in associates (equity-accounted investees)
Associates are all entities over which the Company has significant influence, but not control. Significant influence is presumed with a shareholding of between 20% and 50% of the voting rights. Investments in associates are accounted for using the equity method of accounting and are initially recognized at cost. The group’s investment in associates includes goodwill identified on acquisition, net of any accumulated impairment loss.
The Company’s share of the net income of these companies is included in results relating to associates in the Statement of income, after adjustments to align the accounting policies with those of the Company, from the date that significant influence commences until the date that significant influence ceases. When the Company’s share of losses exceeds its interest in an associate, the carrying amount of that interest (including any long-term loans) is reduced to zero and recognition of further losses is discontinued except to the extent that the Company has incurred legal or constructive obligations or made payments on behalf of the associate. Unrealized gains on transactions between the Company and its associates are eliminated to the extent of the Company’s interest in the associates. Unrealized losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides evidence of an impairment of the asset transferred. Remeasurement differences of equity stake resulting from gaining control over the investee previously recorded as associate are recorded under Results related to investments in associates.
Investments in associates include loans from the Company to these investees.
Accounting for capital transactions of a consolidated subsidiary or an associate
The Company recognizes dilution gains or losses arising from the sale or issuance of stock by a consolidated subsidiary or an associate in the Statement of income, unless the Company or the subsidiary either has reacquired or plans to reacquire such shares. In such instances, the result of the transaction is recorded directly in equity.
Dilution gains and losses arising in investments in associates are recognized in the Consolidated statements of income under Results relating to investments in associates.
Foreign currency transactions
The financial statements of all group entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (functional currency). The euro (EUR) is the functional and presentation currency of the Company. Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of the transactions or valuation where items are remeasured. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at year-end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognized in the Statement of income, except when deferred in Other comprehensive income as qualifying cash flow hedges and qualifying net investment hedges.
Foreign currency differences arising from translation are recognized in profit or loss, except for available-for-sale equity investments (except on impairment in which case foreign currency differences that have been recognized in Other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit and loss), which are recognized in Other comprehensive income.
All exchange difference items are presented as part of Cost of sales, with the exception of tax items and financial income and expense, which are recognized in the same line item as they relate in the Statement of income.
Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies that are measured at fair value are retranslated to the functional currency using the exchange rate at the date the fair value was determined. Non-monetary items in a foreign currency that are measured based on historical cost are translated using the exchange rate at the date of transaction.
The assets and liabilities of foreign operations, including goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on acquisition, are translated to euro at exchange rates at the reporting date. The income and expenses of foreign operations are translated to euro at exchange rates at the dates of the transactions.
Foreign currency differences arising on translation of foreign operations into the Group’s presentation currency are recognized in Other comprehensive income, and presented as part of Currency translation differences in equity. However, if the operation is a non-wholly owned subsidiary, then the relevant proportionate share of the translation difference is allocated to the non-controlling interests.
When a foreign operation is disposed of such that control, significant influence or joint control is lost, the cumulative amount in the translation reserve related to the foreign operation is reclassified to the Statement of income as part of the gain or loss on disposal. When the Company disposes of only part of its interest in a subsidiary that includes a foreign operation while retaining control, the relevant proportion of the cumulative amount is reattributed to Non-controlling interests. When the Company disposes of only part of its investment in an associate or joint venture that includes a foreign operation while retaining significant influence or joint control, the relevant proportion of the cumulative amount is reclassified to the Statement of income.
Non-derivative financial instruments
Non-derivative financial instruments are recognized initially at fair value when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.
Regular way purchases and sales of financial instruments are accounted for at the trade date. Dividend and interest income are recognized when earned. Gains or losses, if any, are recorded in Financial income and expense.
Non-derivative financial instruments comprise cash and cash equivalents, receivables, other non-current financial assets and debt and other financial liabilities that are not designated as hedges.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include all cash balances and short-term highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash.
Receivables are carried at the lower of amortized cost or the present value of estimated future cash flows, taking into account discounts given or agreed. The present value of estimated future cash flows is determined through the use of value adjustments for uncollectible amounts. As soon as individual trade accounts receivable can no longer be collected in the normal way and are expected to result in a loss, they are designated as doubtful trade accounts receivable and valued at the expected collectible amounts. They are written off when they are deemed to be uncollectible because of bankruptcy or other forms of receivership of the debtors. The allowance for the risk of non-collection of trade accounts receivable takes into account credit-risk concentration, collective debt risk based on average historical losses, and specific circumstances such as serious adverse economic conditions in a specific country or region.
In the event of sale of receivables and factoring, the Company derecognizes receivables when the Company has given up control or continuing involvement, which is deemed to have occurred when:
- the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the receivables or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without any material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and
- either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all of the risks and rewards of the ownership of the receivables, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards, but has transferred control of the assets.
However, in case the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the receivables nor transfers control of the receivables, the receivable is recognized to the extent of the Company’s continuing involvement in the assets. In this case, the Company also recognizes an associated liability. The transferred receivable and associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.
Other non-current financial assets
Other non-current financial assets include held-to-maturity investments, loans and available-for-sale financial assets and financial assets at fair value through profit or loss.
Held-to-maturity investments are those debt securities which the Company has the ability and intent to hold until maturity. Held-to-maturity debt investments are recorded at amortized cost, adjusted for the amortization or accretion of premiums or discounts using the effective interest method.
Loans receivable are stated at amortized cost, less impairment.
Available-for-sale financial assets are non-derivative financial assets that are designated as available-for-sale and that are not classified in any of the other categories of financial assets. Subsequent to initial recognition, they are measured at fair value and changes therein, other than impairment losses and foreign currency differences on available for sale-debt instruments are recognized in Other comprehensive income and presented in the fair value reserve in equity. When an investment is derecognized, the gain or loss accumulated in equity is reclassified to the Statement of income.
Available-for-sale financial assets including investments in privately-held companies that are not associates, and do not have a quoted market price in an active market and whose fair value could not be reliably determined, are carried at cost.
A financial asset is classified as fair value through profit or loss if it is classified as held for trading or is designated as such upon initial recognition. Financial assets are designated as fair value through profit or loss if the Company manages such investments and makes purchase and sale decisions based on their fair value in accordance with the Company-documented risk management or investment strategy. Attributable transaction costs are recognized in the Statement of income as incurred. Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are measured at fair value, and changes therein are recognized in profit or loss.
Common shares are classified as equity. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issuance of shares are recognized as a deduction from equity. Where the Company purchases the Company’s equity share capital (treasury shares), the consideration paid, including any directly attributable incremental costs (net of income taxes) is deducted from equity attributable to the Company’s equity holders until the shares are cancelled or reissued. Where such ordinary shares are subsequently reissued, any consideration received, net of any directly attributable incremental transaction costs and the related income tax effects, is included in equity attributable to the Company’s equity holders.
Dividends are recognized as a liability in the period in which they are declared. The income tax consequences of dividends are recognized when a liability to pay the dividend is recognized.
Debt and other liabilities
Debt and liabilities other than provisions are stated at amortized cost. However, loans that are hedged under a fair value hedge are remeasured for the changes in the fair value that are attributable to the risk that is being hedged.
Derivative financial instruments, including hedge accounting
The Company uses derivative financial instruments principally to manage its foreign currency risks and, to a more limited extent, for managing interest rate and commodity price risks. All derivative financial instruments are classified as current assets or liabilities and are accounted for at the trade date. Embedded derivatives are separated from the host contract and accounted for separately if the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract and the embedded derivative are not closely related. The Company measures all derivative financial instruments at fair value derived from market prices of the instruments, or calculated as the present value of the estimated future cash flows based on observable interest yield curves, basis spread, credit spreads and foreign exchange rates, or from option pricing models, as appropriate. Gains or losses arising from changes in fair value of derivatives are recognized in the Statement of income, except for derivatives that are highly effective and qualify for cash flow or net investment hedge accounting.
Changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as fair value hedges are recorded in the Statement of income, together with any changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk. For interest rate swaps designated as a fair value hedge of an interest bearing asset or liability that are unwound, the amount of the fair value adjustment to the asset or liability for the risk being hedged is released to the Statement of income over the remaining life of the asset or liability based on the recalculated effective yield.
Changes in the fair value of a derivative that is highly effective and that is designated and qualifies as a cash flow hedge, are recorded in Other comprehensive income, until the Statement of income is affected by the variability in cash flows of the designated hedged item. To the extent that the hedge is ineffective, changes in the fair value are recognized in the Statement of income.
The Company formally assesses, both at the hedge’s inception and on an ongoing basis, whether the derivatives that are used in hedging transactions are highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of hedged items. When it is established that a derivative is not highly effective as a hedge or that it has ceased to be a highly effective hedge, the Company discontinues hedge accounting prospectively. When hedge accounting is discontinued because it is expected that a forecasted transaction will not occur, the Company continues to carry the derivative on the Balance sheet at its fair value, and gains and losses that were accumulated in equity are recognized immediately in the Statement of income. If there is a delay and it is expected that the transaction will still occur, the amount in equity remains there until the forecasted transaction affects income. In all other situations in which hedge accounting is discontinued, the Company continues to carry the derivative at its fair value on the Balance sheet, and recognizes any changes in its fair value in the Statement of income.
Foreign currency differences arising on the retranslation of financial instruments designated as a hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation are recognized directly as a separate component of equity through Other comprehensive income, to the extent that the hedge is effective. To the extent that the hedge is ineffective, such differences are recognized in the Statement of income.
Offsetting and master netting agreements
The Company presents financial assets and financial liabilities on a gross basis as separate line items in the Consolidated balance sheet.
Master netting agreements may be entered into when the Company undertakes a number of financial instrument transactions with a single counterparty. Such an agreement provides for a net settlement of all financial instruments covered by the agreement in the event of default or certain termination events on any of the transactions. A master netting agreement may create a right of offset that becomes enforceable and affects the realization or settlement of individual financial assets and financial liabilities only following a specified termination event. However, if this contractual right is subject to certain limitations then it does not necessarily provide a basis for offsetting unless both of the offsetting criteria are met, i.e. there is a legally enforceable right and an intention to settle net or simultaneously.
Property, plant and equipment
Items of property, plant and equipment are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. The useful lives and residual values are evaluated annually.
Assets manufactured by the Company include direct manufacturing costs, production overheads and interest charges incurred for qualifying assets during the construction period. Government grants are deducted from the cost of the related asset. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the useful life of the asset. Depreciation of special tooling is generally also based on the straight-line method. Gains and losses on the sale of property, plant and equipment are included in Other business income. Costs related to repair and maintenance activities are expensed in the period in which they are incurred unless leading to an extension of the original lifetime or capacity.
Plant and equipment under finance leases and leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the lease term or the estimated useful life of the asset. The gain realized on sale and operating leaseback transactions that are concluded based upon market conditions is recognized at the time of the sale.
The Company capitalizes interest as part of the cost of assets that take a substantial period of time to become ready for use, which is defined by the Company as a period of more than 6 months.
Measurement of goodwill at initial recognition is described under ‘Basis of consolidation’. Goodwill is subsequently measured at cost less accumulated impairment losses. In respect of investment in associates, the carrying amount of goodwill is included in the carrying amount of investment, and an impairment loss on such investment is not allocated to any asset, including goodwill, that forms part of the carrying amount of investment in associates.
Intangible assets other than goodwill
Acquired finite-lived intangible assets are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated useful life. The useful lives are evaluated annually. Patents and trademarks with a finite useful life acquired from third parties either separately or as part of the business combination are capitalized at cost and amortized over their remaining useful lives. Intangible assets acquired as part of a business combination are capitalized at their acquisition-date fair value.
The Company expenses all research costs as incurred. Expenditure on development activities, whereby research findings are applied to a plan or design for the production of new or substantially improved products and processes, is capitalized as an intangible asset if the product or process is technically and commercially feasible and the Company has sufficient resources and the intention to complete development.
The development expenditure capitalized comprises of all directly attributable costs (including the cost of materials and direct labor). Other development expenditures and expenditures on research activities are recognized in the Statement of income. Capitalized development expenditure is stated at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment losses. Amortization of capitalized development expenditure is charged to the Statement of income on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the intangible assets.
Costs relating to the development and purchase of software for both internal use and software intended to be sold are capitalized and subsequently amortized over the estimated useful life.
Leases in which the Company is the lessee and has substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. Finance leases are capitalized at the commencement of the lease at the lower of the fair value of the leased assets and the present value of the minimum lease payments. Each lease payment is allocated between the liability and finance charges. The interest element of the finance cost is charged to the Statement of income over the lease period so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability for each period. The corresponding rental obligations, net of finance charges, are included in other short-term and other non-current liabilities. The property, plant and equipment acquired under finance leases is depreciated over the shorter of the useful life of the assets and the lease term.
Leases in which substantially all risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Payments made under operating leases (net of any incentives received from the lessor) are recognized in the Statement of income on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. The cost of inventories comprises all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. The costs of conversion of inventories include direct labor and fixed and variable production overheads, taking into account the stage of completion and the normal capacity of production facilities. Costs of idle facility and abnormal waste are expensed. The cost of inventories is determined using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method. Inventory is reduced for the estimated losses due to obsolescence. This reduction is determined for groups of products based on purchases in the recent past and/or expected future demand.
Provisions are recognized if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are measured at the present value of the expenditures expected to be required to settle the obligation using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the obligation. The increase in the provision due to passage of time is recognized as interest expense.
A provision for warranties is recognized when the underlying products or services are sold. The provision is based on historical warranty data and a weighing of possible outcomes against their associated probabilities.
The Company accrues for losses associated with environmental obligations when such losses are probable and can be estimated reliably. Measurement of liabilities is based on current legal and constructive requirements. Liabilities and expected insurance recoveries, if any, are recorded separately. The carrying amount of liabilities is regularly reviewed and adjusted for new facts and changes in law.
The provision for restructuring relates to the estimated costs of initiated reorganizations, the most significant of which have been approved by the Board of Management, and which generally involve the realignment of certain parts of the industrial and commercial organization. When such reorganizations require discontinuance and/or closure of lines of activities, the anticipated costs of closure or discontinuance are included in restructuring provisions. A liability is recognized for those costs only when the Company has a detailed formal plan for the restructuring and has raised a valid expectation with those affected that it will carry out the restructuring by starting to implement that plan or announcing its main features to those affected by it. Before a provision is established, the Company recognizes any impairment loss on the assets associated with the restructuring.
The Company provides for onerous contracts, based on the lower of the expected cost of fulfilling the contract and the expected net cost of terminating the contract. Before a provision is established, the Company recognizes any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.
The Company records a provision for decommissioning costs of certain facilities. Decommissioning costs are provided at the present value of expected costs to settle the obligation using estimated cash flows and are recognized as part of the cost of the particular asset. The cash flows are discounted at a current pre-tax rate that reflects the risks specific to the decommissioning liability. The unwinding of the discount is expensed as incurred and recognized in the Statement of income as a Financial expense. The estimated future costs of decommissioning are reviewed annually and adjusted as appropriate. Changes in the estimated future costs or in the discount rate applied are added to or deducted from the cost of the asset.
The Company is a provider of electrical equipment that falls under the EU Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). The directive distinguishes between waste management of equipment sold to private households prior to a date as determined by each EU Member State (historical waste) and waste management of equipment sold to private households after that date (new waste). A provision for the expected costs of management of historical waste is recognized when the Company participates in the market during the measurement period as determined by each Member State, and the costs can be reliably measured. These costs are recognized as Other business expenses in the Statement of income. With respect to new waste, a provision for the expected costs is recognized when products that fall within the directive are sold and the disposal costs can be reliably measured. Derecognition takes place when the obligation expires, is settled or is transferred. These costs are recognized as part of Costs of sales. With respect to equipment sold to entities other than private households, a provision is recognized when the Company becomes responsible for the costs of this waste management, with the costs recognized as Other business expenses or Cost of sales as appropriate.
Value in use is measured as the present value of future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If the carrying amount of an asset is deemed not recoverable, an impairment charge is recognized in the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the recoverable amount.
Impairment of goodwill, intangible assets not yet ready for use and indefinite-lived intangible assets
Goodwill, intangible assets not yet ready for use and indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized but tested for impairment annually and whenever impairment indicators require. In most cases the Company identified its cash generating units as one level below that of an operating segment. Cash flows at this level are substantially independent from other cash flows and this is the lowest level at which goodwill is monitored by the Executive Committee. The Company performed and completed annual impairment tests in the same quarter of all years presented in the Consolidated Statements of income. An impairment loss is recognized in the Statement of income whenever and to the extent that the carrying amount of a cash-generating unit exceeds the unit’s recoverable amount, which is the greater of its value in use and fair value less cost to sell. An impairment loss on an investment in associates is not allocated to any asset, including goodwill, that forms part of the carrying amount of the investment in associates.
Impairment of non-financial assets other than goodwill, intangible assets not yet ready for use, indefinite-lived intangible assets, inventories and deferred tax assets
Non-financial assets other than goodwill, intangible assets not yet ready for use, indefinite-lived intangible assets, inventories and deferred tax assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is recognized and measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset with the greater of its value in use and fair value less cost to sell. Value in use is measured as the present value of future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If the carrying amount of an asset is deemed not recoverable, an impairment charge is recognized in the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the recoverable amount. The review for impairment is carried out at the level where discrete cash flows occur that are independent of other cash flows.
Impairment losses recognized in prior periods are assessed at each reporting date for any indications that the loss has decreased or no longer exists. An impairment loss is reversed if and to the extent there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. The loss is reversed only to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortization, if no impairment loss had been recognized. Reversals of impairment are recognized in the Statement of income.
Impairment of financial assets
A financial asset is considered to be impaired if objective evidence indicates that one or more events have had a negative effect on the estimated future cash flows of that asset. In case of available-for-sale financial assets, a significant or prolonged decline in the fair value of the financial assets below its cost is considered an indicator that the financial assets are impaired. If any such evidence exists for available-for-sale financial assets, the cumulative loss - measured as the difference between the acquisition cost and the current fair value, less any impairment loss on that financial asset previously recognized in the Statement of income - is reclassified from the fair value reserve in equity (through Other comprehensive income) to the Statement of income.
If objective evidence indicates that financial assets that are carried at cost need to be tested for impairment, calculations are based on information derived from business plans and other information available for estimating their fair value. Any impairment loss is charged to the Statement of income.
An impairment loss related to financial assets is reversed if in a subsequent period, the fair value increases and the increase can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognized. The loss is reversed only to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined if no impairment loss had been recognized. Reversals of impairment are recognized in the Statement of income except for reversals of impairment of available-for-sale equity securities, which are recognized in Other comprehensive income.
Employee benefit accounting
A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which an entity pays fixed contributions into a separate entity and will have no legal or constructive obligation to pay further amounts. Obligations for contributions to defined contribution pension plans are recognized as an employee benefit expense in the Statement of income in the periods during which services are rendered by employees.
A defined benefit plan is a post-employment benefit plan other than a defined contribution plan. The net pension asset or liability recognized in the Consolidated balance sheet in respect of defined benefit post-employment plans is the fair value of plan assets less the present value of the projected defined benefit obligation (DBO) at the balance sheet date. The projected defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by qualified actuaries using the projected unit credit method. Recognized assets are limited to the present value of any reductions in future contributions or any future refunds.
For the Company’s major plans, a full discount rate curve of high-quality corporate bonds (based on Towers Watson RATE:Link data) is used to determine the defined benefit obligation, whereas for the other plans a single-point discount rate is used based on the plan’s maturity. Plans in countries without a deep corporate bond market use a discount rate based on the local sovereign curve and the plan’s maturity.
Pension costs in respect of defined benefit post-employment plans primarily represent the increase of the actuarial present value of the obligation for post-employment benefits based on employee service during the year and the interest on the net recognized asset or liability in respect of employee service in previous years. The Company presents service costs in Income from operations and net interest expenses related to defined benefit plans in Financial expense.
Remeasurements of the net defined benefit liability comprise actuarial gains and losses, the return on plan assets (excluding interest) and the effect of the asset ceiling (excluding interest). The Company immediately recognizes all remeasurements in Other comprehensive income.
The Company recognizes gains and losses on the settlement of a defined benefit plan when the settlement occurs. The gain or loss on settlement comprises any resulting change in the fair value of plan assets and change in the present value of defined benefit obligation. Past service costs following from the introduction of a change to the benefit payable under a plan or a significant reduction of the number of employees covered by a plan, are recognized in full in the Statement of income.
Short-term employee benefit obligations are measured on an undiscounted basis and are expensed as the related service is provided. The Company recognizes a liability and an expense for bonuses and profit-sharing, based on a formula that takes into consideration the profit attributable to the Company’s shareholders after certain adjustments. The Company recognizes a provision where contractually obliged or where there is a past practice that has created a constructive obligation and the obligation can be measured reliably.
The Company’s net obligation in respect of long-term employee benefits is the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods, such as jubilee entitlements. That benefit is discounted to determine its present value. Remeasurements are recognized in the income statement in the period in which they arise.
The grant-date fair value of equity-settled share-based payment awards granted to employees is recognized as personnel expense, with a corresponding increase in equity, over the vesting period of the award. The Company uses the Black-Scholes option-pricing model and Monte Carlo sampling to determine the fair value of the awards, depending on the type of instruments granted and certain vesting conditions.
Revenue from the sale of goods in the course of the ordinary activities is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns, trade discounts and volume rebates. Revenue for sale of goods is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer, recovery of the consideration is probable, the associated costs and possible return of the goods can be estimated reliably, there is no continuing involvement with goods, and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably. If it is probable that discounts will be granted and the amount can be measured reliably, then the discount is recognized as a reduction of revenue as the sales are recognized.
Transfer of risks and rewards varies depending on the individual terms of the contract of sale. For consumer-type products in the sectors Lighting and Consumer Lifestyle, these criteria are met at the time the product is shipped and delivered to the customer and, depending on the delivery conditions, title and risk have passed to the customer and acceptance of the product, when contractually required, has been obtained, or, in cases where such acceptance is not contractually required, when management has established that all aforementioned conditions for revenue recognition have been met. Examples of the above-mentioned delivery conditions are ‘Free on Board point of delivery’ and ‘Costs, Insurance Paid point of delivery’, where the point of delivery may be the shipping warehouse or any other point of destination as agreed in the contract with the customer and where title and risk for the goods pass to the customer.
Revenues of transactions that have separately identifiable components are recognized based on their relative fair values. These transactions mainly occur in the Healthcare sector and include arrangements that require subsequent installation and training activities in order to become operable for the customer. However, since payment for the equipment is contingent upon the completion of the installation process, revenue recognition is generally deferred until the installation has been completed and the product is ready to be used by the customer in the way contractually agreed.
Revenues are recorded net of sales taxes, customer discounts, rebates and similar charges. For products for which a right of return exists during a defined period, revenue recognition is determined based on the historical pattern of actual returns, or in cases where such information is not available, revenue recognition is postponed until the return period has lapsed. Return policies are typically based on customary return arrangements in local markets.
For products for which a residual value guarantee has been granted or a buy-back arrangement has been concluded, revenue recognition takes place when significant risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the customer. The following are the principal factors that the Company considers in determining that the Company has transferred significant risks and rewards:
- the period from the sale to the repurchase represents the major (normally at least 75%) part of the economic life of the asset;
- the proceeds received on the initial transfer and the amount of any residual value or repurchase price, measured on a present value basis, is equal to substantially all (normally at least 90%) of the fair value of the asset at the sale date;
- insurance risk is borne by the customer; however, if the customer bears the insurance risk but the Company bears the remaining risks, then risks and rewards have not been transferred to the customer; and
- the repurchase price is equal to the market value at the time of the buy-back.
In case of loss under a sales agreement, the loss is recognized immediately.
Shipping and handling billed to customers is recognized as revenues. Expenses incurred for shipping and handling of internal movements of goods are recorded as cost of sales. Shipping and handling related to sales to third parties are recorded as selling expenses. When shipping and handling is part of a project and billed to the customer, then the related expenses are recorded as cost or sales. Service revenue related to repair and maintenance activities for goods sold is recognized ratably over the service period or as services are rendered.
A provision for product warranty is made at the time of revenue recognition and reflects the estimated costs of replacement and free-of-charge services that will be incurred by the Company with respect to the products. For certain products, the customer has the option to purchase an extension of the warranty, which is subsequently billed to the customer. Revenue recognition occurs on a straight-line basis over the contract period.
Revenue from services is recognized when the Company can reliably measure the amount of revenue and the associated cost related to the stage of completion of a contract or transaction, and the recovery of the consideration is considered probable.
Royalty income, which is generally earned based upon a percentage of sales or a fixed amount per product sold, is recognized on an accrual basis.
Grants from the government are recognized at their fair value where there is a reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and the Company will comply with all attached conditions. Government grants relating to costs are deferred and recognized in the Statement of income over the period necessary to match them with the costs that they are intended to compensate.
Financial income and expenses
Financial income comprises interest income on funds invested (including available-for-sale financial assets) and recognized surpluses for post-employment benefit plans, dividend income, net gains on the disposal of available-for-sale financial assets, net fair value gains on financial assets at fair value through profit or loss, net gains on the remeasurement to fair value of any pre-existing available-for-sale interest in an acquiree, and net gains on hedging instruments that are recognized in the Statement of income. Interest income is recognized on accrual basis in the Statement of income, using the effective interest method. Dividend income is recognized in the Statement of income on the date that the Company’s right to receive payment is established, which in the case of quoted securities is normally the ex-dividend date.
Financial expenses comprise interest expense on borrowings and recognized deficits for post-employment benefit plans, unwinding of the discount on provisions and contingent consideration, losses on disposal of available-for-sale financial assets, net fair value losses on financial assets at fair value through profit or loss, impairment losses recognized on financial assets (other than trade receivables), net interest expenses related to defined benefit plans and net losses on hedging instruments that are recognized in the Statement of income.
Borrowing costs that are not directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset are recognized in the Statement of income using the effective interest method.
Foreign currency gains and losses are reported on a net basis as either financial income or financial cost depending on whether foreign currency movements are in a net gain or net loss position.
Income tax comprises current and deferred tax. Income tax is recognized in the Statement of income except to the extent that it relates to items recognized directly within equity or in other comprehensive income. Current tax is the expected tax payable on the taxable income for the year, using tax rates enacted or substantially-enacted at the reporting date, and any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized, using the balance sheet method, for the expected tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities and the amounts used for taxation purposes. Deferred tax is not recognized for the following temporary differences: the initial recognition of goodwill, the initial recognition of assets and liabilities in a transaction that is not a business combination and that affects neither accounting nor taxable profit, and differences relating to investments in subsidiaries to the extent that they probably will not reverse in the foreseeable future. Deferred tax is measured at the tax rates that are expected to be applied to temporary differences when they reverse, based on the laws that have been enacted or substantially-enacted by the reporting date. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if there is a legally-enforceable right to offset current tax liabilities and assets, and they relate to income taxes levied by the same tax authority on the same taxable entity, or on different tax entities, but they intend to settle current tax liabilities and assets on a net basis or their tax assets and liabilities will be realized simultaneously.
A deferred tax asset is recognized for unused tax losses, tax credits and deductible temporary differences, to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which they can be utilized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income in the countries where the deferred tax assets originated and during the periods when the deferred tax assets become deductible. Management considers the scheduled reversal of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, and tax planning strategies in making this assessment.
Deferred tax liabilities for withholding taxes are recognized for subsidiaries in situations where the income is to be paid out as dividend in the foreseeable future, and for undistributed earnings of unconsolidated companies to the extent that these withholding taxes are not expected to be refundable or deductible. Changes in tax rates are reflected in the period when the change has been enacted or substantially-enacted by the reporting date.
Discontinued operations and non-current assets held for sale
Non-current assets (disposal groups comprising assets and liabilities) that are expected to be recovered primarily through sale rather than through continuing use are classified as held for sale.
A discontinued operation is a component of an entity that either has been disposed of, or that is classified as held for sale, and (a) represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations; and (b) is a part of a single coordinated plan to dispose of a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations; or (c) is a subsidiary acquired exclusively with a view to sell. A component that previously was held for use will have one or more cash-generating units. Generally, the disposal of a business that previously was part of a single cash-generating unit does not qualify as a component of an entity and therefore shall not be classified as a discontinued operation if disposed of.
Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations are carried at the lower of carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell. Any gain or loss from disposal of a business, together with the results of these operations until the date of disposal, is reported separately as discontinued operations. The financial information of discontinued operations is excluded from the respective captions in the Consolidated financial statements and related notes for all periods presented. Comparatives in the balance sheet are not re-presented when a non-current asset or disposal group is classified as held for sale. Comparatives are restated for presentation of discontinued operations in the Statement of cash flow and Statement of income.
Upon classification of a disposal group as held for sale the Company may agree with the buyer to retain certain assets and liabilities, in which case such items are not presented as part of assets/liabilities held for sale, even though the associated item in the Statement of income would be presented as part of discontinued operations. The presentation of cash flows relating to such items in that case mirrors the classification in the Statement of income, i.e. as cash flows from discontinued operations.
Adjustments in the current period to amounts previously presented in discontinued operations that are directly related to the disposal of a discontinued operation in a prior period are classified separately in discontinued operations. Circumstances to which these adjustments may relate include resolution of uncertainties that arise from the terms of the disposal transaction, such as the resolution of a purchase price adjustments and indemnifications, resolution of uncertainties that arise from and are directly related to the operations of the component before its disposal, such as environmental and product warranty obligations retained by the Company, or the settlement of employee benefit plan obligations provided that the settlement is directly related to the disposal transaction.
Operating segments are components of the Company’s business activities about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker (the Board of Management of the Company). The Board of Management decides how to allocate resources and assesses performance. Reportable segments comprise the operating sectors Healthcare, Consumer Lifestyle and Lighting. Innovation, Group & Services (IG&S) is a sector but not a separate reportable segment and holds, amongst others, headquarters, overhead and regional/country organization expenses. Segment accounting policies are the same as the accounting policies as applied to the Group.
Cash flow statements
Cash flow statements are prepared using the indirect method. Cash flows in foreign currencies have been translated into euros using the weighted average rates of exchange for the periods involved. Cash flows from derivative instruments that are accounted for as fair value hedges or cash flow hedges are classified in the same category as the cash flows from the hedged items. Cash flows from other derivative instruments are classified consistent with the nature of the instrument.
Earnings per share
The Company presents basic and diluted earnings per share (EPS) data for its common shares. Basic EPS is calculated by dividing the net income attributable to shareholders of the Company by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period, adjusted for own shares held. Diluted EPS is determined by adjusting the Statement of income attributable to shareholders and the weighted average number of common shares outstanding, adjusted for own shares held, for the effects of all dilutive potential common shares, which comprise convertible personnel debentures, restricted shares, performance shares and share options granted to employees.
The Company recognizes a liability at the fair value of the obligation at the inception of a financial guarantee contract. The guarantee is subsequently measured at the higher of the best estimate of the obligation or the amount initially recognized.
IFRS accounting standards adopted as from 2013
The accounting policies set out above have been applied consistently to all periods presented in these Consolidated financial statements except as explained below which addresses changes in accounting policies. In case of the absence of explicit transition requirements for new accounting pronouncements, the Company accounts for any change in accounting principle retrospectively.
The Company has adopted the following new and amended IFRSs as of January 1, 2013.
Disclosures - Offsetting Financial Assets and Liabilities (Amendments to IFRS 7)
As a result of the amendments to IFRS 7, the Company has expanded its disclosures about the offsetting of financial assets and liabilities. See note (34) Fair value of financial assets and liabilities.
IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements
IFRS 10 introduces a single control model to determine whether an investee should be consolidated. The new standard includes guidance on control with less than half of the voting rights (‘de facto’ control), participating and protective voting rights and agent/principal relationships. Based on a reassessment of the control conclusion for the investees at January 1, 2013, the adoption of IFRS 10 did not have a material impact on the Company’s Consolidated financial statements.
IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements
Under IFRS 11, the structure of the joint arrangement, although still an important consideration, is no longer the main factor in determining the type of joint arrangement and therefore the subsequent accounting. Instead:
- The Company’s interest in a joint operation, which is an arrangement in which the parties have rights to the assets and obligations for the liabilities, will be accounted for on the basis of the Company’s interest in those assets and liabilities.
- The Company’s interest in a joint venture, which is an arrangement in which the parties have rights to the net assets, are equity-accounted.
Prior to 2012 the Company accounted for jointly controlled entities using the equity method. The adoption therefore does not have a material impact on the Company’s Consolidated financial statements.
IFRS 12 Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities
This standard contains the disclosure requirements for interests in subsidiaries, joint ventures, associates and other unconsolidated interests. As a result of IFRS 12, the Company has expanded its disclosures on interests in other entities. See note (6) Interests in entities.
IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement
IFRS 13 establishes a single framework for measuring fair value and making disclosures about fair value measurements, when such measurements are required or permitted by other IFRSs. More specifically, the definition of fair value was clarified to be the price at which an orderly transaction to sell an asset or to transfer a liability would take place between market participants at the measurement date. The standard also replaces and expands disclosure requirements about fair value measurements in other IFRSs, of which some of these are required in interim financial statements related to financial instruments. The Company therefore has included additional disclosures in note (34) Fair value of financial assets and liabilities. IFRS 13 has no material impact on the measurements of the Company’s assets and liabilities.
Presentation of Items of Other Comprehensive Income (Amendments to IAS 1)
The new amendment requires separation of items presented in Other comprehensive income into two groups, based on whether or not they can be recycled into the Statement of income in the future. Items that will not be recycled in the future are presented separately from items that may be recycled in the future. The application of this amendment impacts presentation and disclosures only. Comparative information has been re-presented.
IAS 19 Employee Benefits (2011)
As a result of the introduction of IAS 19 (2011) - or IAS 19R/Revised - the Company has changed its accounting policy with regard to the accounting of defined benefit pension plans. The main change impacts the basis of determining the income or expense for the period related to these pension plans. Under the new standard the Company determines a net interest expense (income) by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation (DBO) at the beginning of the annual period to the net defined benefit liability (asset) at the beginning of the annual period, taking into account any changes in the net defined benefit liability (asset) during the period as a result of contributions and benefit payments. As a result, this net interest now comprises:
- interest cost on the DBO;
- interest income on plan assets; and
- interest on the effect of the asset ceiling.
Previously, the Company determined interest income on plan assets based on their long-term rate of expected return. Furthermore, as from January 1, 2013 the Company presents net interest expenses related to defined benefits in Financial income and expense rather than Income from operations.
The new standard no longer allows for accrual of future pension administration costs as part of the DBO. Such costs should be expensed as incurred. Previously, for the Dutch pension plan the Company accrued a surcharge for pension administration costs as part of the service costs into the DBO. With the adoption of the new standard this accrual was eliminated, resulting in an exclusion of EUR 216 million from the DBO per January 1, 2013, thereby improving the funded status. This funded status improvement is offset by the impact of the asset ceiling test regarding the Dutch pension plan’s surplus, and hence there is no further impact on the Company’s balance sheet figures other than the direct recognition of previously unrecognized past service cost.
The impact on Equity from the IAS 19 (2011) accounting policy change is as follows:
Decrease in the net defined benefit obligation (non-current, after asset ceiling restriction)
Increase in deferred tax assets (non-current)
Net increase on equity
Equity holders of the parent
The limited impact on the balance sheet mainly relates to some unrecognized past service cost gains and losses which must be recognized immediately under IAS 19 (2011). The limited impact is explained by the fact that the Company already applied immediate recognition of actuarial gains and losses in Other comprehensive income.
The negative impact of IAS 19 (2011) for post-employment defined benefit plans on Income from operations, Income before taxes and Basic and Diluted earnings per share is as follows:
Income from operations
Financial income and expenses
Income before taxes
Basic earnings per share
Diluted earnings per share
Recoverable Amount Disclosures for Non-Financial Assets (Amendments to IAS 36) (2013)
The amendment to IAS 36 Impairment of Assets was introduced following the introduction of IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement, to reduce the circumstances in which the recoverable amount of assets or cash-generating units is required to be disclosed, clarify the disclosures required, and to introduce an explicit requirement to disclose the discount rate used in determining impairment (or reversals) where recoverable amount (based on fair value less costs of disposal) is determined using a present value technique. As the amendment is basically to avoid unintended disclosure requirements from the introduction of IFRS 13, it was early adopted by the Company. The amendment has no material impact.
Defined Benefit Plans: Employee Contributions (Amendments to IAS 19)
Initially the abovementioned IAS 19 (2011) adjustments required that employee contributions basically would have to be incorporated in the measurement of the defined benefit obligation. This amendment allows a practical expedient to continue to recognize employee contributions in the Statement of income when certain conditions are met. The Company early adopted this amendment and as a result there is no change in the way how employee contributions are currently treated compared to the treatment prior to the IAS 19 (2011) adoption. Up to 2013 the Company has very limited employee contributions in their pension plans.
IFRS accounting standards adopted as from 2014 and onwards
A number of new standards and amendments to existing standards have been published and are mandatory for the Company beginning on or after January 1, 2014 or later periods, and the Company has not yet early adopted them. Those which may be the most relevant to the Company are set out below.
IFRIC 21 Levies
IFRIC 21 provides guidance on the accounting for certain outflows imposed on entities by governments in accordance with laws and/or regulations (levies). The Interpretation identifies the obligating event for the recognition of a liability as the activity that triggers the payment of the levy in accordance with the relevant legislation. This Interpretation does not have a material impact on the financial statements.
Changes to other standards, following from Amendments and the Annual Improvement Cycles, do not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.